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通过语料库学习语义韵(semantic prosody)  

2009-04-20 15:58:46|  分类: 语料库 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 downright :完全    具有消极的语义韵

d an intense jealousy and downright sorrow for the freedom I believed

That's when things turned downright... racial. 

 there's little chance of starving, our appetites have become downright dangerous.

allow for discriminatory or downright unethical不道德的 uses of personal health information

 but lugging one around everywhere can be downright inconvenient. 

massive quantities of information and zero in on what matters is downright spooky.令人毛骨悚然的

The gig can also be downright freezing,

 Repackaging those securities into yet other securities was a downright bad one. 

While hammering some sections without a freeride bike can be downright suicidal, 自杀的

It feels downright regressive退步的 to have to point out that minorities can be stars too, 

rife with : 充满

they were rife with Yucatan menace

The country was waste and rife with decay.

Practicality and sports rife with unnatural color.

 As choosing a mate is rife with unknowns, it's not best arrived at by number crunching.

Astronomers think these filaments are rife with dark matter -

But in a nation rife with distrust of multinationals in general

 the landscape is rife with physical barriers that isolate wildlife populations

a system rife with inefficiencies

 a task rife with danger.

the Internet wasn't so rife with all of this mean gossip.

referring to the oil-rich city in northern Iraq that is rife with sectarian violence.

a sunny midsummer's morning rife with misguided ambition and deceit.

kids are being raised in a society rife with sexual images and innuendo.

It is shocking that in a nation rife with amateur shrinks who presumably understand the

the pairings were rife with complexities and ambiguities.

it is rife with smuggling and banditry.

结论:rife with具有消极的语义韵


spinster老处女/剩女 输入“[jj] spinster”

She sees the old spinster Miss Dunlop, stacking the books.

Once, racked with fear and chagrin, a lonely spinster could anonymously write to Ann Landers for solace。

where she's played everything from a repressed spinster to a belly dancer.

 from blissful homebound mother to neurotic 神经病的spinster to ball-busting single career woman. 

and a lovelorn 相思病苦的spinster stage manager (Ursula Meyer), both expertly played here.

It's why I'm a long-toothed spinster.

Wolf's speciality was the prim, dowdy, little spinster secretary who rose to become indispensable to her West

For Dad, who may be surprised how much this isolated spinster knew.

 baby killer, " " whore ", " over-sexed, frustrated spinster " and the

Eleanor, also called Nell, is a fearful spinster who has sacrificed her own happiness to care for a hateful, invalid mother

 Jean, a fastidious 难取悦的spinster with crocheted antimacassars on her armchairs, would hardly be up

PAMELA Physical perfection, charm and wealth tossed over for a dowdy 邋遢的spinster.

I had become an aging spinster

Agatha Christie had enjoyed portraying a gossipy, acidulous 有点挖苦的spinster in " The Murder of Roger Ackroyd.



break out    输入"[nn1] broke out"

War broke out in 1998.

When fire broke out in a dorm at Seton Hall University, resident assistant Dana Christmas tried desperately

In 59 A.D., a huge fight broke out in the stadium during a contest with a rival city.

a cold sweat broke out all over my body.

At 3:30, violence broke out.

Massive rioting broke out in the Telugu-speaking region of southern India.

At one point, a mini scuffle broke out between pro-amnesty supporters and police.

The blaze broke out Labor Day.

Shooting broke out in Basra when hundreds of Iraqis gathered for a protest at an oil company

But just then, gunfire broke out in the distance.

 That's when an argument broke out.

结论:break out具有消极的语义韵


reap     输入" reap [nn2]"

American farmers are watching their Canadian neighbors reap profits from hemp.

it's too late to adopt new behaviors, though they can still reap benefits.

In politics, those who pay tribute to the powerful also reap rewards.

This time, the US hopes it will reap dividends from offering economic incentives to the communities.

that critical juncture when you'll reap savings.

he hopes to reap riches from its fancy software features.



aftermath 余波;后果  输入"aftermath of"

 In the aftermath of the tragic killings last year at the Amish school in Pennsylvania

 And then in the aftermath of the accident, even immediately after

say in the aftermath of the assassination in Pakistan.

what's been helpful in the aftermath of the abuse crisis

The first one, which was enunciated in the immediate aftermath of 9/11, was a policy by this government

In the aftermath of World War II, people in America - people in Alabama

raining down in the aftermath of an eruption. I

 on extra poignancy in the aftermath of the collapse of the World Trade Towers.

 The aftermath of the comet strike, Mike thought Nearly three hundred

In the aftermath of devastation, there were always newly homeless children

sluggish ambience had given way to a torrent in the aftermath of the storm.

aftermath 具有消极的语义韵


end in    输入"end in [nn1]

These scenes heighten the tension and suggest that all will end in tragedy.

Only then do you understand the heartache of women whose pregnancies end in disaster or those who can't have the baby they want.

Most missing person reports do not end in a murder.

the ‘Jewish Question’, interpreting the war in classical Nazi fashion as a struggle brought about by the Jews and destined to end in their destruction.

Plaid Cymru president Dafydd Wigley, MP for Caernarfon, has condemned the new wave of attacks which, he has warned, could end in loss of life.

All lifetime loves end in death.

 most voters think it is wrong that one-quarter of pregnancies end in abortion

half of all marriages end in separation or divorce

Not all social anger has to end in violence or destructive behavior.

 of these pregnancies result in live births, 41% are aborted, and the remainder end in miscarriage

end in一般具有消极的语义韵


 because of

shecan't be fleshed out precisely because of her shameful treatment

 males to die during El Nio because of poor body condition

probably energetic costs that penguins must pay because of human visitation

 made infinitely harder to bear because of the gaping void left by the disappearance of loved ones.

trust Sarath in part because of their divergent understandings of the meaning of truth.

In conclusion, because of the serious challenges involved in the assessment of the impact of prerequisites

Because of the ongoing war and its possible short- and long-term deleterious effects on American youth

Some percentages do not add up to 100 because of missingdata.

 to communicate with each other because of the lack of meaningful conceptual constructs within the area.

Turkish woman to leave the country because of the ban on veiling at universities.

the religious education requirements because of the curricular conflicts with their own beliefs.

not attend school for approximately 2 years because of  family instability

Because of the patient's failure to respond to standard antibacterial therapy

结论:because of 一般具有消极的语义韵


"go"后接的形容词, 在“WORD(S)”中输入“go [jj*]”

go crazy/bankrupt/bad/hungry/wild/slow/broke/mad/blind/unanswered/extinct/insane



leave sb adj   输入"left * [jj]" or "leaving [nn1] [jj]"

 But then, pressed by the police, he claimed he left her alone on the beach.

setting down coffee cups and pencils, leaving work unfinished on desks

recipients are abuse survivors, we need to ask, not just " are most leaving welfare poor?, " but also, " are they safe? " #

Mayor Bill White's crime-victims director, collects and analyzes data of sex offenders leaving prison unsupervised.

Traditionally distrustful of white lawyers, black landowners often died without wills, leaving land vulnerable to forced public sales.

Hadnot said property tax delinquency is another factor for abandoning old houses or leaving land vacant.

But moving from one extreme to the other may be equally unhealthy in leaving labor unequipped or unwilling to participate in the now important political process.

Sun is the enemy of shine, baking out moisture and leaving hair lifeless.



 keep sb adj  输入"kept * [jj]"

So what could I have done to have kept him alive?

I considered myself lucky since he kept me awake to witness the stars,

They kept it secret from them

Mostly, though, she kept it simple and went straight to her regular guy, Big Baby Dog.

My duties have kept me busy.

Hendrik and Sarah fed their son, kept him warm, aired out his room,

The poetry kept me sane, and the Psalms gave me hope.

She came to believe that he needed her, that her attention kept him safe.

The cardidn't always run, but he kept it clean.

Sure, Janyce kept it real by socializing with " the peeps



 stay系动词  输入“stay [jj]”

I was trying to stay alive.

Now, after 10:00, she could barely stay awake as she read in the master bedroom.

And especially when you're on the road, it's hard to stay healthy.

The Cliffs Cottage opens June 14 and will stay open through June 2009.

 How do you stay warm?

New Seattle Health and Safety asks you to stay safe!

 Stay cool, Bob. Stay cool.

Though not mandatory, the clinics help athletes stay competitive.

It was imperative that he stay alert and concentrate.

A sick dismay was starting to grip Anne, but she tried to stay strong.

She has tried to stay true to her values.

Secondly, Romney wants to stay active in the party.



 utterly 完全;绝对地   输入“utterly [jj]”

 The house was utterly silent.

Thats just utterly ridiculous.

They were educated people, both with utterly useless degrees

In these moments, he is utterly alone.

 with atmospheres utterly devoid of oxygen.

yet his attempt to sound blas rings utterly false.

But since to be intelligent is utterly impossible without having much of the knowledge

it would be utterly incapable of seizing Baghdad against

 And then a dramatic and utterly unexpected appearance.

Caught utterly unprepared by the exquisiteness of the scene

I find the photograph utterly absurd

the man looked utterly helpless

something utterly incomprehensible to match the blighted fascination

He will be utterly ruthless in approaching the problem.



 incur 招致;引发   输入“incurred [nn1]”

 for the environmental costs both incurred postpetition

 But such plans have incurred criticism

 claim by lessor for incurred clean-up costs

while Murri incurred suspension a divinis in 1907

so incurred removal costs

he incurred blood poisoning

that the human race collectively sinned and incurred guilt

 the term African incurred disfavor with some free Blacks,

the accreditation process had incurred disapproval

service the newly incurred debt



 happen  输入“[nn2] happened ”

And the two incidents happened about two hours apart.

was at school in New York when the attacks happened

a series of small accidents happened.

walking to class when the shootings happened

The murders happened on a farm

I was 15 when the LA riots happened.

 Five of the deaths happened in a single roadside bombing

they said that the problems happened

The explosions happened near simultaneously

Power failures happened every few minutes

 The fires happened in homes, in senior-citizen apartments

One of those battles happened in a narrow valley



commit后接的名词     输入“commit [nn1]”

 had been driven to commit suicide

with conspiracy to commit murder

that he did not want to commit perjury

would never commit adultery

no conspiracy to commit fraud

why people do and do not commit crime

with incitement to commit genocide

 this guy will commit violence

that some even commit rape

 conspiracy to commit espionage

conspiracy to commit robbery

Conspiracy to commit burglary

are likely to commit terrorism



enhance       输入“enhance [nn1]”

and tend to enhance performance

using various technology tools to enhance learning

during this time to enhance security for their employees

facilitate relationships, build trust, enhance communication

support teaching units and enhance understanding

 This would help eliminate the stigma and enhance self-esteem among boys

 in traditional classes to enhance teaching and learning

considered, such as " to enhance health outcomes

have been shown to enhance memory in college-age men

Care must be taken by staff to enhance motivation to negotiate

 would inevitably enhance productivity



 career    输入“[jj] career”

Linda had a successful career

I must humbly add, distinguished career in medicine

This is a great career move for you.

to hope for a brilliant career

avoiding the things that get in the way of a good career and life.

to enjoy a remarkable career.

he had had an illustrious career

Pamela gave up a promising career in theoretical



quite and rather  

 输入“ quite [jj]”

 I'm not quite sure what he means

he makes it quite clear that he thinks that Obama doesn't have a lot of foreign

so its quite good for me to get rid of a little bit of energy

 think Jon is quite right

that was quite similar talking about

And she was completely sober and quite happy.

That wasn't quite true.

Sometimes the art was quite large.

 I think that it would be quite interesting


 输入“ rather [jj]”

it is rather difficult to improve

I am rather small, comparatively

But for a rather limited amount of money, we can

not everyone shared my rather narrow vision of the Civil War

 Just that rather vague opening scene in the garbage dump

 she had found it rather sad that Mark had none of his own.

It's all rather complicated

her mother being a rather dull spirit.

the overall effect of music in the present study was rather weak




cause  v      输入“  caused [nn1]”

cause trouble/cancer/ damage/concern/death/controversy/pain/confusion/consternation/harm/havoc/friction



set in开始    输入set in .

the real heat set in .

But then reality set in .

you'll see the Democratic panic set in .

Soon after, curious side effects set in .

 Then instability set in .

The girls scurried to get home before the dark set in .

before serious problems set in .

结论:set in 前面的名词大多是消极的


下面单词和短语也具有消极的语义韵: encounter, trigger (verb), run the risk of, be liable to, notoriously, vulnerable to,  incidence of, regime,  instigate,  induce, and brace for.
下面单词和短语也具有积极的语义韵:  bring out and provide.
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